martes, 24 de noviembre de 2009

The President of the Republic of Colombia

The President of the Republic of Colombia
He is the head of state and government of Colombia.

Is formed, besides the President, Cabinet ministers and heads of administrative departments, officers who are freely appointed and dismissed by the President.
According to the Constitution, the president is elected jointly with the Vice President for a period of 4 years and re-elected once.
The possibility of immediate reelection of the president emerged from a 2004 constitutional reform, as the original text of the Constitution of 1991 forbade presidential reelection for life, extending the existing ban since 1863 on immediate reelection of the incumbent president. In October 2005, declared enforceable constitutional reform allowing reelection.

Evolution of the office of President of Colombia

From the cry of independence on 20 July 1810, Colombia has been confusion and controversy over his handling of presidential figure. During the period of the Patria Boba, where the figure of the president is not entirely clear in the midst of this chaotic period. It is clear that each of the provinces that formed the first nation had its own constitution and even their own presidents. In addition, each of these states, which ended up fighting them for territory ruled by a dictator.While debating between federalist and centralist, the Spanish retook parts of the country, so it was agreed a triumph of centralism, headed by Antonio Nariño, by 1815

Presidentes de la Gran Colombia

Gral. Simón Bolívar Palacios

Gral. Francisco de Paula Santander y Omaña

Joaquín Mariano Mosquera

Gral. Rafael José Urdaneta

1827 -1830




Presidentes de la Nueva Granada

Gral. Domingo Caicedo Santamaría

Gral. Francisco de Paula Santander y Omaña

José Ignacio de Márquez Barreto

Gral. Pedro Alcántara Herrán

1841 (e)


1832 (e)


Gral. Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera

Gral. José Hilario López

Gral. José María Obando

José María Melo Ortiz





José de Obaldía

Manuel María Mallarino

Mariano Ospina Rodríguez




Presidentes de la Confederación Granadina

Mariano Ospina Rodríguez

Bartolomé Calvo

Gral. Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera




Presidentes de los Estados Unidos de Colombia

Gral. Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera

Manuel Murillo Toro

Gral. Santos Acosta Castillo

Gral. Santos Gutiérrez Prieto





Gral. Eustorgio Salgar

Santiago Pérez de Manosalbas

Aquileo Parra Gómez

Gral. Julián Trujillo Largacha

1863 (e)




Rafael Núñez Moledo

Francisco Javier Zaldúa

Clímaco Calderón

José Eusebio Otálora Martínez


1863 (e)



Ezequiel Hurtado


Presidentes de la República de Colombia

Gral. José María Campo Serrano

Eliseo Payán

Rafael Núñez Moledo

Carlos Holguín





Miguel Antonio Caro Tovar

Manuel Antonio Sanclemente

José Manuel Marroquín

Gral. Rafael Reyes Prieto

1894 -1898




Gral. Jorge Holguín Jaramillo

Ramón González Valencia

Carlos E. Restrepo Restrepo

José Vicente Concha





Marco Fidel Suárez

Gral. Pedro Nel Ospina Vásquez

Miguel Abadía Méndez

Enrique Olaya Herrera





Alfonso López Pumarejo

Eduardo Santos

Darío Echandía Olaya

Alberto Lleras Camargo




1958-1962 (Frente Nacional)

Mariano Ospina Pérez

Laureano Gómez Castro

Roberto Urdaneta Arbeláez

Gral. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla





Junta Militar de Gobierno
(Gral. Gabriel París Gordillo)

Alberto Lleras Camargo

Guillermo León Valencia Muñoz

Carlos Lleras Restrepo





Misael Eduardo Pastrana Borrero

Alfonso López Michelsen

Julio César Turbay Ayala

Belisario Betancur Cuartas





Virgilio Barco Vargas

César Augusto Gaviria Trujillo

Ernesto Samper Pizano

Carlos Apolinar Lemos Simonds





Andrés Pastrana Arango

Álvaro Uribe Vélez


2002-2006 - 2010

Carlos Lleras Restrepo
Born in Bogotá on 12 April 1908 and died in the same city in 1990

Economist, statesman, writer and liberal politician, President of the Republic during the period 1966-1970. Carlos Lleras Restrepo, son of Federico Lleras Acosta, "the wise Lleras" and Amalia Restrepo.
Married to Cecilia de la Fuente, 25 March 1933, had four children: Charles, lawyer, Clemencia (deceased), Mary Agnes and Fernando, an economist. Lleras Restrepo began his studies at the little school of Triana, about his relatives.
Entered second grade at De La Salle Institute where he graduated Bachelor of Arts in 1924. In 1930 he graduated in Law and Political and Social Sciences, National University of Bogota, with the thesis "The trial of bankruptcy." In 1928 he was chairman of the National Student Congress.In 1929 he made his first public intervention in politics during demonstrations against the ministers of War and Public Works chairman Miguel Abadía Méndez, and was appointed second vice president of the National Convention held in Fix liberalism. Liberal Member of the Board of Bogota, Lleras Restrepo participated in the campaign for the presidential candidacy of Enrique Olaya Herrera, with a tour of several municipalities in Cundinamarca. In 1931 he was elected to the Assembly of Andhra Pradesh in 1932, was named secretary of government in Bogota and in 1933 was representative to the House and secretary of Cundinamarca.

From this position advanced the fragmentation of the El Chocho, considered as an antecedent experience of land reform. In 1935 he was elected a second time representative to the House, becoming president of this corporation. In 1936 he was appointed Comptroller General of the Republic, elected in 1937. President Eduardo Santos was appointed finance minister, a post he held from 1938 to 1941. During this period, it founded the Instituto de Credito Territorial (ICT) aimed at solving the problem of housing for low-income classes, the Municipal Development Institute, the Instituto de Fomento Industrial (IFI), the Geographic Institute Agustin Codazzi;National Coffee Fund, an instrument for the implementation of coffee policy and Monetary Stabilization Fund. In 1939 he taught the chair of public finance at National University.

In 1941 he was responsible for the management of the newspaper El Tiempo, in association with Roberto García-Peña, and was president of the National Liberal leadership. In 1942 he was elected senator. Reappointed finance minister in 1943, during the second administration of Alfonso López Pumarejo, founded the School of Industrial and Commerce Administration of Modern Gym and played the decanatura.

In 1944 he was nominated for his presidential bid and led the Colombian delegation to the Bretton Woods Conference. In 1945 he was delegate from Colombia to the Chapultepec Conference and member of the Colombian delegation to the Preparatory Commission and the General Assembly of the United Nations.

Elected vice president in London of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations in 1946 and in 1947 was a member of the Special Committee on International Affairs of the United Nations and president of the Colombian delegation to the Conference on Trade and Employment in Havana. From 1948 to 1966 was part of the National Liberal. In 1950, along with former presidents Alfonso López Pumarejo and Eduardo Santos, member of the triumvirate to lead the Liberal Party. On 6 September 1952 under the provisional government appointed Roberto Urdaneta, being a member of the National Liberal, was burnt down his house.
Between 1952 and 1954 Lleras Restrepo remained in exile in Mexico, where columns and articles sent to the newspaper El Tiempo. In 1954 he returned to Colombia and was included in the board of El Tiempo, on behalf of Eduardo Santos. Invited by the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAC), acting as consultant, was also delegate to the conference Colombia Quitandinha (Brazil). In 1956 he founded the Friends of the Country Economic Society. In 1971 the United Nations was called to assist in the development study of river basins. Following the fall of General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, in 1957, was elected to the Joint Committee on Institutional Adjustment, from which intervened in the drafting of the text which set the foundations for reform and announced a plebiscite for the referendum campaign in that year .Director of the Liberal Party, was appointed head of the national debate for the parliamentary elections and re-elected senator for the period 1958-1962.

During 1959 he made a trip through Europe in the curriculum. In 1960 Congress designated elected him to the presidency of the republic and as chairman of the National Land Committee, organized and chaired a seminar in Bogota Political Leaders of Latin America. In 1961 the National Liberal Convention elected him sole director of the party again. In 1962 he was reelected senator, drafted the same year and held the political arrangements of the so-called Grand Coalition, while in Medellin a group of university students launched his candidacy for President of the Republic, received immediately by the Liberal party convention .

In 1963 ECLAC called again to prepare recommendations on Trade and Development Conference in Geneva. In 1964 he chaired the Colombian delegation to this conference, and two liberal conventions reiterated his presidential candidacy. However, in 1965 withdrew his candidacy, but the bipartisan Committee for National Transformation, headed by former President Alberto Lleras Camargo, asked him to reassume. On 27 November of that year was solemnly proclaimed.
On May 1, 1966 Carlos Lleras Restrepo was elected President of the Republic. During his tenure agreements signed 1592, 191 attended cabinet meetings and traveled the country 96 times. Lleras called his government with the slogan "National Transformation." During his administration pushed land reform abolished the free market exchange, is eliminating the diversity of exchange rates, foreign investment was regulated in Colombia and the Colombian abroad, established a tax deduction at source, began the electricity in the country, created the departments of Risaralda and Quindio and introduced the constitutional reform of 68, with the aim of giving more power to the executive and streamline the administrative apparatus.

The constitutional reform of 1968 also enacted political parity until 7 August 1978 and declared the mode of the emergency declaration. Lleras Restrepo administration created the National Savings Fund, the Colombian Family Welfare Institute (ICBF), whose main impulse was the first lady, Mrs. Cecilia Lleras de la Fuente, the Institute for Non-Renewable Natural Resources (INDERENA), the Fund Export Promotion (PROEXPO), the Colombian Institute of Sciences (COLCIENCIAS), the Colombian Institute of Culture (COLCULTURA), the Colombian Institute for Educational Building (ICCS), the Colombian Institute for Higher Education (ICFES) and the Institute Colombian Sports (COLDEPORTES).

In the international arena, restored diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, interrupted since 9 April 1948; received the visit of Pope Paul VI, during the International Eucharistic Congress in 1968, created and launched the Andean Pact and endorsed the Covenant Andres Bello cultural integration. On 21 April 1970, two days after elections for president and official results were known, according to which the Conservative candidate Misael Pastrana Borrero narrowly defeated Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, candidate of the Popular National Alliance (ANAPO) whensupporters of the latter began to claim victory and angrily accused the government of fraud and threatened to seize power by force, President Lleras Restrepo appeared on national television, called on the public order and imposed a state of siege and curfew.
In 1970 the United Nations Organization for Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Lleras Restrepo appointed chairman of the special commission on reform, and in that capacity, prepared the report adopted by the Conference of that body. In 1972 the National Convention elected him again Liberalism sole leader of the party. In 1973 he was appointed as consultant to the president of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). In 1974 he wanted to run again for President of the Republic, but was defeated by a coalition formed by his party and Alfonso Lopez Michelsen Julio César Turbay Ayala. After Lopez's presidency in 1978 returned to run, but failed to win his party's nomination. Alongside his political career, Lleras Restrepo has pursued his activity as a journalist.
As Comptroller General of the Republic, founded the Annals of Economics and Statistics, as Minister of Finance, the Journal of Finance, with Juan Lozano and Plinio Mendoza Neira, the weekly policy and something more, and in 1974, the magazine New Frontier, which since then directs. Signing his articles with the pseudonym Perez and The Bachelor Cleophas Hephaestus. On the other hand, is author of: From the Republic to the dictatorship (1955), Chronicles of Bachelor and symposia Cleophas Perez (two series: 1962 and 1964), Towards the restoration of democracy and social change (1963), A program transformation National (1965) Social change (1966), friends (1970), Colombian Liberalism (1972), Drafts for liberal history (1975), History and Politics (1980) International Economics and the exchange rate regime (1981) , The Agrarian Question: 1933-1971 (1982), Chronicle of my life (9 volumes, 1983-1992).

The Colombian economy from its origins to the crisis of 1929 (1990) and constituent assembly or Congress (1990), among others. Lleras Restrepo has received numerous awards, including the extraordinary Grand Cross of the Order of Boyaca, the Order Piana, in the rank of Knight, granted by the pope. Paul M, the Grand Cross of the Order of the bright southern Peru, the National Order of San Lorenzo in the rank of Grand Cross, conferred by the government of Ecuador, the collar of the Order of the Liberator, granted by the government Venezuela, the decoration of the Order "Promotes cloud" in the Special Grand Cordon degree awarded by the Republic of China, the collar of the Order of Andrés Bello, the Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru, the Order Basque Nunez Balboa, Panama; the Order of Malta, the Order of Duarte, Sanchez and Millo, in the rank of Grand Cross and gold plate, conferred by the government of the Dominican Republic and in 1984 the National Journalism Award for life and work of a journalist.

Eduardo Misael Pastrana Borrero
Born in Neiva on 14 November 1923 and died on 21 August 1997.

Huila conservative political party, President of the Republic during the last presidential National Front, 1970-1974. Son of Elisa and Misael Pastrana Borrero, Misael Pastrana Borrero Eduardo early studies in the colleges of the Presentation and Santa Librada in his hometown, then Garzón (Huila) and later at the Colegio San Bartolome de Bogota, where he finished high school.
When I went to turn 15, was a victim of the famous "tragedy of Santa Ana", 24 July 1938, when during the presentation of a military review, which were present presidents Alfonso LopezPumarejo (incoming) and Eduardo Santos (outgoing), a plane Hawak FAC, who was performing acrobatic tricks, grazed one of the stands and crashed in flames and causing hundreds of deaths and injuries.
One was Misael Pastrana, who suffered burns to his face and hands. While his family arrived in Huila, was in a hospital under the care of Mariano Ospina Perez and his wife, since he was a classmate of a child of the marriage Ospina Hernandez. Being a college student, participated in the presidential campaign of Carlos Arango Vélez, organizing a support command. In 1944 he began his political career, defending the thesis of the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement, who claimed to overcome the traditional parties and interest centered on the social problem of the country.

On July 19, 1945 received a doctorate degree in Law and Economics at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, with the award-winning thesis "Fraud Paulian and simulation.Immediately after he returned to the life of his region, founded in Neiva and the weekly El Porvenir. He was circuit judge, a position that he resigned to participate in the presidential campaign of Mariano Ospina Perez, who once assumed command, appointed him secretary of the Embassy of Colombia to the Holy See, a position he held from 1947 to 1949.

While in Rome, he specialized in criminal law at the Institute Ferri. On his return to the country in 1948 was appointed private secretary to President Mariano Ospina Perez was then, for some months, the incoming President Laureano Gómez, who was appointed minister counselor of the Embassy in Washington, between 1950 and 1952. On February 24, 1952, married in Bogotá, Maria Cristina Arango Vega, with whom he had four children: John Charles, Andrew, Jaime and Maria Cristina. In 1953 he became secretary general of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and left the country again as manager of the Caja Agraria in New York and a delegate to the Economic Council of the United Nations between 1954 and 1956.

On his return home was linked with various private sector activities. He worked as Professor of International Law at the Universidad Javeriana, where later, in 1963, was one of the founders of the Faculty of Economics and its first dean. In 1957 he founded the first financial corporation, the Colombian from Bogota, and was appointed executive vice president of the same. A1 end 1958, the conservative daily El Siglo included him in the presidential list for the period 1962-1966 and ran his name for the corresponding elections.

In 1960, during the administration of Alberto Lleras Camargo, Pastrana was appointed Minister of Development (now Development), a position from which he defended in Congress and obtained approval from the entry of Colombia to the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA today ATADI). He was Minister of Public Works, and then finance minister, a position he held only 45 days, but he proposed to the World Bank, and he accepted, the constitution of the first consultative group aimed at integrating foreign credit for the country.

In September 1961 he retired from the government to submit his name as presidential candidate, but before the National Conservative Convention met to select the final candidate for this community, Pastrana withdrew his name from the candidacy. Then decided to retire from politics and became president of the company Celanese. Again returned to politics in 1965 as a member of the bipartisan National Front, in defending the appointment of Carlos Lleras Restrepo, who at that time had been withdrawn by the fierce opposition from sectors of both parties.

Alberto Lleras Camargo Lleras and Pastrana proclaimed in the Coliseum Fair of Bogota.Possession Lleras Restrepo, named minister of government Pastrana (19661968), from where it launched a program of large-scale community action in Congress and defended the constitutional reform of 1968 that revamped the state. He was appointed to the Embassy in Washington, and within months he presided over the mission of the Consultation Group, where he managed to accept the most important external credit scheme in history. While in the U.S. capital, 17 directories department of his party asked him to resign to push his nomination as presidential candidate.

After his resignation as a diplomat, Pastrana returned to the country and 12 September 1969, at the Coliseo de Medellín, accepted the candidacy that was consolidated in November and December of that year, the conventions of both parties. His name was submitted to the Liberal convention with Evaristo Sourdis and Belisario Betancur. A1 be accepted, Pastrana became the bipartisan candidate for the last period of alternation of the National Front.

Faced with their party, and Sourdis Betancur, launched individually, and General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, who represented the forces of the National Popular Alliance (ANAPO), Pastrana was elected president in April 19, 1970, 1 625 025 votes against 1 561 468 votes for Rojas, Betancourt and 471 350 by 336 288 by Sourdis. The only 63 557 votes difference with Rojas Rojas made his supporters claim the victory and accused the government of Lleras Restrepo of fraud.

However, on June 15 next, the Electoral Court officially proclaimed president Misael Pastrana for the period 19,701,974, and made solemn presentation of the respective credential. With the theme "Social Front", Pastrana began a government whose purpose was to integrate the marginalized country with the participating country. During his government, began what he called "the nation's heritage Colombianization" was obtained from the oil companies Colpet and Sagog, reversing early 50% of their rights under the then existing concessions, was acquired 50% of interest in the offshore Gulf of Orito and pipeline facilities to Tumaco, the Shell proceeded to advance the reinvestment of all its operations in the Middle Magdalena and negotiated Intercol refinery in Cartagena and their rights in the Pacific pipeline, as well as those of Texas in the Orito-Tumaco. It began the system of partnership in oil fields, leaving behind the simple concessions, and regulating foreign investment in banking.

UPAC system was introduced (Unit of Constant Purchasing Power) savings; created the Workers Bank, was extended commutation of pension and they were extended to widows and orphans, were devoted first pensions for journalists; child benefit was organized, creating the Supreme Council with participation of functionaries from trade unions, began the family doctor system and spread to agricultural areas and non-dependent, community centers were started for children and the National Nutrition Plan ; tax system was modernized with the use of teleprocessing; are 2,300 kilometers of paved roads and nearly over the Western Trunk; were rehabilitated about 700 kilometers of railway, is endowed with computer ports local and foreign credit resources; Airport was remodeled and built El Dorado airport in Bucaramanga, Leticia, Monteria and Pitalito, and the reconstruction of 14 tracks of airports began construction of terminals at Cartagena and Barranquilla and the purchase of land and hired the engineering studies of Rionegro, was increased by 55.4% public power generation and signed the partnership contract to begin exploiting Cerrejon and inaugurated the Central Abastos of Bogota, the new headquarters of the Administrative Security Department ( DAS) and the monumental bridge in Barranquilla.

The government executed the operation "Anori" anti-guerrillas in Antioquia. Furthermore, manufactured exports grew from 98.8 million to $ 526.1 million, were generated one million new jobs, through the Integrated Rural Development Plan (DRI), a policy was structured to help through the agrarian reform to the landless and smallholders; was submitted to Congress on constitutional reform bill granting the right to vote from age 18, project approved two years after its administration Disciplinary Tribunal was established and is Mirage aircraft and submarines acquired.

The Pastrana administration in talks with Venezuela (a country with which there was danger of military confrontation) on the delimitation of marine and submarine areas, and signed an agreement with the Holy See for the reform of the Concordat. As former President Misael Pastrana Borrero founded on 24 January 1977, Script magazine, wrote several books including 'Colombia: two-party calling a century' (1984), and was chairman on several occasions, from the National Conservative.

Antonio Lazaro Alfonso Lopez Michelsen
(Bogota, June 30, 1913 - July 11, 2007). Lawyer and President (1974-1978).

President of the Republic (1974-1978)
For the 1974 elections is presented as a candidate of his party, and gets the nomination by defeating former President Lleras Restrepo and after the retirement of Julio, who backs it. He won the election by a majority over the Conservative candidate Alvaro Gomez Hurtado and the ANAP candidate Maria Eugenia Rojas, as a curiosity, the three leaders were sons of former presidents. As an unforgettable detail of its fine irreverence recalls his inaugural speech on 7 August 1974 when, touching the burning issue of border dispute with Venezuela regarding the Gulf of Venezuela, called it "Gulf of Coquivacoa" making and reference to its original Indian name.
During his administration, Colombia had a second coffee boom, but at the same time high levels of inflation, also during its opening period began for women to voluntarily initiate a military career, he created the HIMAT established the age of majority at 18 and restored relations between Colombia and Cuba.
Internationally participated in the signing of the Torrijos-Carter Treaty which guaranteed the future return of the Panama Canal by the United States to Panama.
On September 14, 1977 faced a National Civic Strike in protest of its popular anti government, we know of the death of several union leaders and workers injured at the hands of the security forces, Lopez Michelsen that day curfew imposed, this strike is remembered by leftist groups in Colombia as one of the largest and by the brutal action of the security forces.
At the end of his term in 1978 resumes the reins of his party and presented to the 1982 elections for the Liberal Party who split with the dissident candidate Luis Carlos Galan Sarmiento of the New Liberalism was defeated by Conservative candidate Belisario Betancur, who led a movement that called for political groups that went beyond his party
Recognized by many as a leading contemporary thinkers of Colombia, said that every time Lopez spoke, "began to think about the country."
After retiring from active politics after rejecting a candidate to the Constituent Assembly of 1991, launched a strong campaign for the humanitarian exchange since 2002 and returned to the public square to support his party, the liberal in the 2006 election well the same in 2005 participated in favor of the adoption of a law granting economic rights to homosexual couples. In his last days was an honorary member of the Colombian Academy of Jurisprudence and collaborator of the newspaper El Tiempo, which kept a Sunday column.
Alfonso Lopez Michelsen died at his home in Bogotá on 11 July 2007, at 4:00 a. M, due to a heart attack on July 12 was laid in the Capitol, where he was accompanied by hundreds ofsupporters on 13 July and was buried in Central Cemetery of Bogota. The 2008 version of Vallenato Festival paid tribute in his name.

Julio César Turbay Ayala
(18 June 1916, Bogotá, 13 September 2005, Bogotá)
Political belonging to the Party and president of the Republic of Colombia in the period from 1978 to 1982.

Political Career

Turbay started his political career in the Liberal Party, as Usme councilman in 1936, mayor in 1937 and Girardot Engativá councilman in 1938, the latter corporation also comes along with junior Alfonso Lopez Michelsen and Alvaro Gomez Hurtado. That same year he joined the Assembly of Andhra Pradesh, until 1942, and in 1943 he was elected congressman. By 1949, when President Mariano Ospina Perez quits Congress, and had chaired the House twice.Strong leader of the opposition to conservative governments in 1953 is part of the National Directorate of liberalism, and in 1957, after the rise of the military junta was appointed Minister of Mines and Petroleum, becoming one of the most influential of the cabinet.
In 1958 the new President, Alberto Lleras Camargo, designated Foreign Minister, a post he held until 1961. Great supporter of the National Front, was elected senator in succession in 1962, 1966, 1970 and 1974. Appointed in 1967 was elected to the presidency and executive branch exercises for a few days in the absence of the owner Carlos Lleras Restrepo. He was ambassador to the UN (1967-1969), Britain (1973-1974) and U.S. (1975-1976).
For the 1974 elections is considered one of the three potential presidential candidates of liberalism, with Lleras Restrepo and Lopez Michelsen, Turbay, looking at a disadvantage, supports Lopez, who wins the presidency, and who gets to make the oath, the be elected President of the Senate. In the race for 1978, the sector returns lopista care, supporting its ambition against Lleras. In the general election, narrowly defeated the conservative candidate Belisario Betancur.

During his tenure was highlighted by the controversial Security Statute, convened to counter the various rebel movements emerged in the past decade and where there were frequent torture, disappearances and other human rights violations that led to the exile of many intellectuals including writer Gabriel García Márquez, and by the National Integration Plan, in which the infrastructure had significant momentum.
In 1980, M-19 guerrilla group took the embassy of the Dominican Republic as a demonstration of its ability to act. He managed to negotiate a peaceful end to the making, starting with the participants of the M-19 into an exile in Cuba.
After his presidency he was Ambassador to the Holy See (1987-1989) and to Italy (1991-1993), both diplomatic missions were interrupted by being called by the Liberal Party to be its national director, in the context of presidential elections 1990 and 1994. He supported the presidential candidacy of Alvaro in 2002 and founded the New Patriotic Movement, as dissent for all liberals who supported the project Uribe, until the time of his death was still leading New Nation to support the government of Álvaro Uribe Vélez.

Cuartas Belisario Betancourt
(born February 4, 1923 in Arriaga, Antioquia)
He's a lawyer, writer and conservative Colombian, who was president of Colombia from 1982 to 1986.

Presidency of Colombia (1982-1986)
In 1978 he was nominated as his party's official candidate for President of the Republic, in a fierce campaign against the Liberal Julio Cesar Turbay, who was defeated by a narrow margin.For the 1982 elections was again bearer for his party, and was supported by the ANAPO, forming the National Movement, which led to defeat former President Alfonso Lopez Michelsen, with almost 3'200 000 votes, compared to 2'800 .000 the former president, thus obtaining the most votes in U.S. history.
Betancourt has called for dialogue with the rebel guerrilla organizations in Colombia and signed agreements with the guerrillas of the FARC, M-19 and EPL. With the FARC signed agreements La Uribe and that resulted in the creation of the Patriotic Union as the political arm of the FARC, while the M-19 signed the Agreements of Corinth. His presidential term was marked by major social work as the impetus to the housing, and a dramatic reduction of illiteracy, as well as its ongoing quest for peace, within which there was a negotiation process with the Colombian guerrillas, whose failure of both parties was the pretext for the guerrillas to Take Courthouse in November 1985. At present there is still a vigorous debate on the responsibility of the President, who fully delegated command of the military operation returns; even have been charged and arrested several of the generals who commanded the rescue operation, accused of the murder and disappearance forced civilians who were in the building. Moreover Betancur took energetic measures against the drug cartels of Medellin and Cali.
Betancourt is also known as a writer and promoter of poetic activities. In 2006, Betancourt's former president donated his vast library of over 22,000 books, the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.

Virgilio Barco Vargas
Cucuta, 17 September 1921 - † Bogotá, 20 May 1997)

He was an engineer and a Colombian politician. He was a member of the Colombian Liberal Party and President of Colombia in the period 1986-1990. It was one of the most illustrious citizens of Cúcuta who ever lived.

Presidency of Colombia (1986-1990)
In 1982 he had suggested the name of boat as possible presidential candidate, but he, like most of his party backed former President Alfonso, who was defeated by Conservative Belisario Betancur. By 1986, Michelsen was Lopez himself who pushed strongly Boat name when reporters asked his opinion about the Liberal candidate and he responded with the famous phrase "If it is not boat who?". In the elections was supported by all factions of his party, even dissent New Liberalism of Luis Carlos Galan, who found a security boat unit. His opponent was the Conservative leader Alvaro Gomez Hurtado; 4'214 the result was 000 votes (the highest vote of the story so far), more than 59%, to Barco, compared with almost 2'588 .000 of its principal adversary, and 328,000 of the Patriotic Union candidate Jaime Pardo Leal.
After assuming command Barco launched the government-opposition plan to end the vestiges of the National Front, as told in his cabinet only with representatives of the Liberal Party. Its mandate was to major routes poverty programs, dialogue with leftist guerrillas and the fight against drug trafficking. Their peace negotiations were successful at the end of its term, the demobilization of the M-19 and PLA People's Liberation Army, was next to the demobilized M-19, former President Misael Pastrana and the movement of the Seventh Ballot One of the major drivers of the Constituent Assembly would be set up in 1991
Although he was popular among the international community, it was less in Colombia because drug dealers were more violent after they started going against them, kidnapping leaders like Andres Pastrana and Alvaro Gomez Hurtado and killing others as the presidential candidates Leal, Bernardo, Luis Carlos Galan and Carlos Pizarro (leader of the M-19) and Attorney General Carlos Mauro Hoyos.
The economic liberalization program began with his administration, opening markets to Colombian and reloaded the world economy, although this program was accelerated in the following command (César Gaviria), which would be of major controversies in the party Liberal. In the eradication of poverty with acceptable results highlighted the "National Plan to Combat Poverty" and "National Rehabilitation Plan, the latter, the most successful, was led by future presidential candidate Rafael Pardo Rueda.

Cesar Augusto Gaviria Trujillo
(born 31 March 1947 in Pereira, Risaralda)

is an economist and a Colombian politician, president of Colombia from 1990 to 1994, Secretary General of the Organization of American States from 1994 to 2004 and Liberal Party National Director 2005 to present. During his tenure as President was convened a National Constituent Assembly that promulgated the Constitution of Colombia in 1991.
Gaviria came to politics early occupying various positions, first in his hometown of Pereira was head of planning in Risaralda and Assistant National Planning Department (1970 to 1971) and Pereira Councilman (1970 to 1974). He was appointed mayor of Pereira, a post he held from 1975 to 1976. From the beginning he joined the Party.
In 1974 he was elected to the House of Representatives of Colombia on behalf of Risaralda, corporation of which he became president in 1983.
During the administration of Julio César Turbay Ayala (1978-1982), Gaviria entered politics as deputy national economic development.

Minister of Finance
President Virgilio Barco Vargas appointed him Minister of Finance in 1986, a post he held until 1987 when it passed to the portfolio of Government. As Minister of Finance submitted to Congress two major projects: the agrarian reform and tax reform. Then, as Minister of Government submitted to Congress the draft constitutional reform. These political reforms and the government spokespersons while acting as a delegatee Minister left the country during President Barco, gave a profile of a statesman.

President of Colombia
Gaviria resigned from the cabinet of President Barco to take over as Head of Debate liberal candidate Luis Carlos Galan Sarmiento. When Galán was assassinated in 1989, his son Juan Manuel Galán Gaviria asked to continue with the flags of New Liberalism. With the death of Galan, the former minister Gaviria, then 41, was invited by Juan Manuel Galan to take the flags at the nomination, despite that Gaviria had engaged the gallant few months ago. In March 1990, Gaviria won a resounding victory over Hernando Duran Dussan and Ernesto Samper (which ended roughly even) due to the feeling of pain and anger generated among citizens for the murder.
By winning the Liberal Party's internal consultation to rivals such as Hernando Duran Dussan and Ernesto Samper, Gaviria Hurtado defeated candidates of the National Salvation Movement, Antonio Navarro Wolff of the Democratic Alliance M-19 and Rodrigo Lloreda Caicedo Social Conservative Party in a election campaign marred by violence promoted by drug traffickers, who killed, besides the de Galan, the presidential hopefuls from left, Carlos Pizarro Leon-Gomez, Bernardo Jaramillo Ossa and where Gaviria himself was threatened with death

Ernesto Samper Pizano
(Born August 3, 1950 in Bogota)

He is a lawyer, economist and Colombian politician was president of Colombia on 7 August 1994 to August 7, 1998. His term was marked by the process 8000 and the difficult relations with the United States. Son of Andres Samper Pizano Gnecco and Helena Pardo, after studying a BA in Modern Gym graduated in Law and Economics at the University.

Political Career
Joined young Colombian Liberal Party, was president of the National Association of Financial Institutions (ANIF) from 1974 to 1981. In 1982, former President Alfonso Lopez Michelsen calls him to be the manager of his reelection campaign, but leave defeated by the conservative Belisario Betancur. After the presidential campaign, election began his career as Member of Cundinamarca (1982-1984), councilor of Bogotá (1982-1986) and member of the Senate (1986-1990) where he consolidated his liberalism within the People Power movement .
In 1990 ran for the presidency, but finished third in the popular consultation of his party behind the winner César Gaviria Trujillo, former Minister Hernando Duran Dussan.
That same year he was appointed Minister of Development by President César Gaviria Trujillo, between 1991 and 1993 serves as Ambassador of Colombia in Spain and returned to the country, to find again the nomination of his party. In the referendum, defeat the lawyer and former Interior Minister Humberto de la Calle and veteran leader Carlos Lemos Simmonds, the two end up being his vice presidents (between 1994 and 1997 and between 1997 and 1998, respectively).
In the presidential elections of May 1994, he managed the transition to the second round, in which he faced the Conservative candidate Andres Pastrana and who finally defeated by a slight margin.

President of Colombia (1994-1998)
The purpose of giving Samper during his administration a "social leap" was accomplished by doubling during the quadrennium, the percentage of GDP spent on social investment and the creation of social programs targeting as allowing SISBEN expand to 23 million the number of Colombians receive health services, the Social Solidarity Network aimed at providing economic support for marginal social and geographical, the creation of the Ministry, the supply of land to indigenous and Afro-Colombian communities, the mass of urban land tenure, PLANTE program for social substitution of illicit crops and significant progress in education coverage and aqueducts. Also worried about the issue of human rights and, more specifically, by the application of IHL in the middle of the Colombian conflict. In his government approved the protocols I and II of the Geneva Convention,
Its mandate has developed a comprehensive policy of aggressive war on drugs that included the destruction of illicit crops, destruction of laboratories for the processing of drugs, the seizure of chemicals, air and maritime interdiction of drug shipments, the fight against money laundering through draconian measures such as termination of ownership of property acquired illegally and combating criminal organizations such as the Cali Cartel is considered one of the most wanted posters in the world that was completely dismantled during his administration. He showed that this Cartel Samper, accused of financing his campaign, was in the same combat situation of all Colombian criminal organizations.

Andres Pastrana Arango
(Bogotá, 17 August 1954)

is a Colombian politician, was the 55th president of Colombia between 1998 and 2002. He is the son of former President Misael Pastrana Borrero, who also addressed the country from 1970 until 1974, and Cristina Arango Vega.

In 1977 he became a lawyer at the Universidad del Rosario in Bogotá and studied international law at Harvard University, USA.
After returning to the country became a recognized news anchor in television news he founded, "TV Today". He also wrote several articles on domestic policy and drug policy that earned him several awards.
In 1984 and 1986 he was elected councilor of Bogotá. In 1988, amid the violent campaign by drug traffickers and terrorist groups to prohibit the extradition, Pastrana was kidnapped by the so-called extraditable, led by the Medellin cartel leader Pablo Escobar, due to their journalistic reports on the business drug, and was rescued a week of plagiarism by police. In the same year became the first mayor of Bogota (capital of Colombia) elected by popular vote (1988-1990), during which privatized garbage collection service and built the Core of the Avenida Caracas, forerunner of today TransMilenio public transport system. In 1991 he was elected senator, as head of the list of the New Democratic Force, partisan movement that created a split in the Conservative Party.
Subsequently resigned from the Senate to stand for election to the presidency of Colombia concluded en1994, receiving the backing of the Conservative Party. Narrowly lost to the Liberal candidate Ernesto Samper Pizano.

Presidential candidate (1994)
A week after the runoff election held in 1994 for the period from 1994 to 1998 that defined the future president of Colombia between the candidate Ernesto Samper Pizano and Andrés Pastrana Arango, former President César Gaviria Trujillo Andrés Pastrana Arango received some cassettes (henceforth known as the narco-cassettes) while conducting a tour of the city of Santiago de Cali. President Cesar Gaviria, sent the tapes to the then Attorney General Gustavo de Greiff's Office who confirmed his source informed the President Gaviria and refrained from opening an investigation. Pastrana was never notified of the contents of the tapes and narco-election arrived, ignorant of this infiltration of drug trafficking in the Samper campaign.
Subsequently, the successor of the Prosecutor General Alfonso Valdivieso, made known to the public on 20 June 1995 are disclosed audio tapes in which the journalist Alberto Giraldo spoke with brothers Miguel Rodriguez Orejuela and Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela (heads of Cali cartel) to money to support the campaign of Ernesto Samper. On Monday, 27 February 1996 the Committee on Accusations of the House decided to open formal investigation against President Ernesto Samper, in a move unprecedented in the history of Colombia. The 15 members of the commission, after weigh the evidence adduced by the Prosecutor General Alfonso Valdivieso, including a video of Pablo Escobar in which he acknowledged having paid money to Ernesto Samper's campaign in 1982 and a tape of the witness' Mary ', who was to be introduced by Senator Jesse Helms before the United States Congress, felt that there was merit to open a criminal investigation against President Ernesto Samper.
However, contrary to what expected, July 6, 1996 Ernesto Samper was cleared by the House.By 111 votes to 43 charges were filed against the President. The process was prelucido.

Presidency of Colombia (1998-2002)
After four years of opposition to then President Samper, Pastrana was confronted by the conservative candidate and former Senator Mines Minister Juan Camilo Restrepo, who defeated them. In the second round of presidential elections in June 1998 was elected president with 51% of the vote, defeating Liberal candidate Horacio Serpa Uribe. During his campaign for President Pastrana in talks with FARC guerrillas and promised peace talks if elected, Pastrana took a picture with the guerrilla Manuel Marulanda in which the clock wore a symbol of the Pastrana campaign. Once elected, Pastrana began immediately a dialogue with the guerrillas.As candidate Andres Pastrana had given the guerrillas a demilitarized zone to conduct the talks there, Caguan.

Álvaro Uribe Velez
(born July 4, 1952 in Medellin, Antioquia)

is a Colombian politician and lawyer who currently serves as president of the Republic of Colombia for the period 2006-2010. He was reelected to that post after his previous administration (2002-2006) following the submission of a legislative act which amended the constitution. There are doubts about whether the president seeking a third presidential term (period 2010-2014) by a popular referendum is pending.
Uribe graduated in law at the University of Antioquia and then studied in administration, management and negotiation of conflicts in the Extension School of Harvard University, was also "senior associate member" of a college of the University of Oxford.
As a politician has held various positions at Empresas Publicas de Medellin, in the Ministry of Labor and the Civil Aeronautics Administration, serving as mayor of Medellin in (1982), acting as a senator (1986-1994) and more Later, as governor of Antioquia (1995-1997), finally being elected President of the Republic of Colombia in 2002. It was reported on August 30, 2009, that President Uribe AH1N1 contracted influenza while participating in the conference in a south in Bariloche, Argentina.

Álvaro Uribe Velez began his public life at an early age when he and Hernando Agudelo and Diego Street, began military in Colombian Liberal Party. His allies proceeded to join the liberal directory of Antioch, which was chaired by Mr. Bernardo Guerra, and Uribe went with them to the directory, but that was short and then turned dissident without breaking with the essence of the game. By 1985 based on regional motion Antioquia known as "democratic sectors" with his cousin and political ally Mario Uribe Escobar, a movement that eventually would become the Democratic Colombia party.
In 1976, Álvaro Uribe was promoted to Head of Property of Public Enterprises of Medellín, exerting between 1977 and 1978 as general secretary of the Labor Ministry.

Director of Civil Aviation (1980-1982)
Álvaro Uribe had 28 years when he was appointed Director of Civil Aviation by President Julio Cesar Turbay, a position he held between January 1980 and 7 August 1982. His role as director was to license the construction of airports in the municipalities of Frontinus, Amalfi, Urrao, and Caucasia. Are considered major achievements of his tenure the fact finish building the international airport of Barranquilla Ernesto Cortissoz, achieving the nighttime operation of airports Palonegro (action occurred in Bucaramanga) and, among other successes, the creation of Camilo Daza International Airport Cucuta and the construction of Airlift Bogota El Dorado International Airport.

Mayor of Medellín (1982-1983)
Álvaro Uribe was appointed mayor of Medellin from 1982 to 1983 during the government of President Belisario Betancur, but only served along five of the forty-eight months. Since the mayor led a major civic project, dubbed "Civic Medellin, which included the creation of Metro security, industrial and commercial enterprises of the State provider of technology services, logistics, training and consultancy, aimed at both the public and the private sector, through an integrated security system. Uribe also privatized the management of delivering waste landfill in the curve of Rhodes to the private sector.
In 1983, Uribe received a letter from the guerrillas of the PLA where he demanded a huge sum of money and letters with threats against his family. Uribe came when the then director of DAS in Monteria, Emilio Vence to whom he made the complaint and then began the investigation. DAS officials agreed to hand over the money and extortionists Vence Uribe told: "Give up your hat, poncho and carriel, for an agent of ours, with very similar features, we face the guerrillas." Uribe refused to let the other person put his life in danger for him and told him that it would Vence to deliver the money. In episode twelve guerrillas were captured.

Councilwoman of Medellín (1984-1986)
In 1984, Álvaro Uribe was elected councilor of Medellin, the Proposer from that agreement by the tax exemption to cooperatives and rapporteur of the project that created Metrosalud. He finished his term as councilor of Medellin in 1986.

Senator (1986-1994)
Álvaro Uribe was a Senator in the periods 1986-1990 and 1990-1994, aiming at the House along with his cousin Mario Uribe Escobar, who during these same periods also sought a Senate experience. Because of the performance accomplished during his first term Senator won distinctions in 1990 and the Star of Senator best initiatives merit chosen by the media and his Senate colleagues. Was cited as Best Senator in 1993.
During his two terms chaired Senate committees and was a speaker for:
Act 11 of 1988 which authorized the income subsidized domestic service to the Social Security Institute (ISS).
Act 71 of 1988 Pension Reform.
Law 79 of 1988 Update Cooperative or Cooperative Bank.
Financing Act 16 of 1990 democratic football clubs.
Law 40 of 1990 Protection and development of sugarcane production.
Law 91 of 1990 Order provides that created the Fund for Teachers.
Act 50 of 1990 Education Reform.
Act 27 of 1992 administrative careers.
Protection Act 82 of 1993 female head of household.
Act 100 of 1993 Social Security System.
As Senator Álvaro Uribe was a speaker during the Gaviria government and launched during the Samper administration of Law 100 of 1993, also called "social security law and integral" to regulate health in Colombia and aimed to guarantee the inalienable rights of the individual and the community for quality of life commensurate with human dignity through the protection of the contingencies that affect them. The system includes the obligations of state and society, institutions and resources to ensure the coverage of the benefits of an economic, health and supplemental services, the subject of this law, or other normatively be incorporated in the future, and that the law remains in force today.

Governor of Antioquia (1995-1997)
Álvaro Uribe Vélez was elected governor of Antioquia for the 1995-1997 period, beating by just 418 votes to Conservative candidate Lapeira Alfonso Nunez, who later would support the governor-elect. Took possession of office on 2 January 1995. During his tenure, Antioch had a new style of government more proactive and organized the first community councils.
As governor of Antioquia cut expenses and staff, expanded education coverage quotas by 102,000, multiplied by three miles of paved roads and got a million of Antioquia had their health care, subsidized, which is considered mainly as great successes.
His administration also defended and promoted the local implementation of the CONVIVIR private security cooperatives established by the national government through Decree 356 of 1994 and a resolution of 27 April 1995 of the Superintendence of Surveillance and Private Security.
As governor of Antioquia, ordered the arrest of the German agent Werner Mauss following his participation in the payment of a ransom for the release of a Germanic corporate executive kidnapped by the ELN guerrillas.

President of Colombia (2006-Present)
His presidential term was marked by the struggle against the rebel groups and drug trafficking in Colombia under a government program called democratic security policy that is covered in part by Plan Colombia and has been criticized by sectors of the opposition and dissidents. Uribe's government carried out a
introverted demobilization of paramilitary groups active within the AUC, which included the Justice and Peace Law to reduce the space of action of the guerrillas like the FARC and ELN.
Uribe has sought the signing of various free trade agreements with other countries, principally the United States. Sectors has been accused by opponents and dissidents allegedly had a relationship with the Medellin cartel and the promotion of paramilitary activity in Colombia, which has been investigated and found innocent. Uribe has denied any involvement with these sectors criminals but government officials and their political allies have been convicted in the Para-politics scandal, which has generated questions. Uribe has fostered a market economy and a strong strategic alliance with the United States also criticized for creating dependency on that country. Also in the field of international relations has had ups and downs with the governments of Venezuela's Hugo Chávez, Ecuador's Rafael Correa and Nicaragua's Daniel Ortega.
Were submitted various controversies and criticisms about President Uribe, their family and their performance in different public or political functions. These include accusations by Piedad Córdoba, Gustavo Petro and Virginia Vallejo alleged ties to the Medellin cartel and paramilitaries in Colombia, which has declined sharply.

First presidential term (2002-2006)
Álvaro Uribe Velez, who had always fought within the Liberal Party stood for presidential elections in 2002 initially as a candidate of his party. However, the claimed lack of guarantees candidate to compete against ex-minister and former presidential candidate Horacio Serpa and, in addition to increasingly sharp ideological differences between them (Serpa, representing a social trend and Uribe, one more to the right within the Liberal Party), decided to run as an independent. His main challengers were Horacio Serpa, representing the Liberal Party, former union leader Luis Eduardo Garzon for the Independent Democratic Pole, former Minister Noemi Sanin, the motion Yeah, Colombia and Senator Ingrid Betancourt by the Green Oxygen Party (the latter , ended his campaign being kidnapped by the FARC). Several liberal leaders and the Conservative Party in those elections, which withdrew the candidacy of former Minister Juan Camilo Restrepo-Uribe gave their support.
Uribe was elected president of Colombia for the period 2002-2006 to 53% of the total votes (5,862,655 votes), defeating his main rival, Horacio Serpa who obtained 31.8% of the vote (3,514,779 votes ) and becoming the first president to win the election in the first round since the measure was introduced in the 1991 Constitution. According to the National Registry of Civil Status, participation in elections was 46,471% (11,249,734 people) of voter registration.
In 2002, Uribe's presidential campaign received 100 million pesos from the company Uniapuestas, in which Mrs. Enilse Lopez (aka "The Cat") was the majority shareholder.
Subsequently, Lopez was captured and accused of various criminal charges of money laundering and diversion of funds, related to other lawsuits. In the past he had also criticized and considered suspicious of being related to drug trafficking, specifically with Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha of the Medellin cartel member, why they began to suspect the honesty with which Uribe received the money. and lately with the paramilitaries.
However, Uribe and his former campaign manager Fabio Echeverri have argued that it has hidden anything on the financing of his campaign, that this amount was reflected in the accounts and not committed any illegal conduct and that in 2002 Lopez Enilse companies were legally incorporated.
Several critics, including pre-candidate of the Liberal Party and Alternative Democratic Pole, questioned both the morality of the reception of such money as that incurred in potentially criminal conduct by accepting, something not shown up today.

Second presidential term (2006-Present)
Uribe was reelected president of Colombia for the period 2006 - 2010 after about reforming the constitution to allow immediate reelection. The adoption of the reform in Congress was controversial because the fact that representatives Yiddish Medina Avendaño Teodolindo changed their decision at the last minute, Medina voted favorably for reelection after he had expressed his negative vote, while absent from Avendano
the vote. Much had been speculated about the issue until April 2008, the journalist Daniel Coronel revealed a video in which Yiddish Medina says he accepted favors from some of President Uribe and some of his closest aides to change his vote, however according to Medina, despite the commitment made with the president did not receive what was promised. Officials involved and President Uribe have strongly denied the facts.
In the election, Uribe reached 62.35% of the total vote (7, 397.835 votes). The vote clearly in their favor, exceeding the number of votes achieved in the first period, becoming the president with the highest number of votes in the country's electoral history. Participated in that election 45.05% (12,041,737 people) of voter registration.

Presidents of Colombia: Leydy Yuvary Anaya